Katie's 8th Grade History
Section 1    France
  žIn 987, Hugh Capet a French noble, was chosen as the new king of France ›At that time France consisted of many feudal territories. ›100 years after his death weak kings and did little to increase royal power.

žIn 1108 Louis VI, known as “Louis the Fat” became king and increased the power of the monarchy.   Stopped the raids of lawless vassals and granted charters to many towns, thus winning the loyalty of the townspeople

  žPhillip II ›Increase power ›Made Paris the center of government žLouis IX ›Ordered nobles to stop feuding and forbade them to settle disputes by fighting duels ›Made it illegal to use coins made anywhere else but the royal mint žPhilip IV ›Known as “Philip the Fair” ›He was a very fair ruler


Section 2 England
  ž1042 the witenagemot made Edward the Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon prince, king of England

›Supported many choices in the kingdom
žWilliam the Conqueror ›1066 William led a army of between 4,000 and 7,000 Norman knights across the channel

to England

–Killed King Harold >  was crowned King William I of England

›To keep the Normans in line William introduced feudalism ›Kept many English laws and government
  žHenry II ›Circuit judges, or judges who traveled throughout the country ›Set up juries to settle quarrels about land.  After a while, two kings of juries came into being. ›One was the grand jury, or a group of people who present to judges the names of people suspected of crimes ›The other was the trial jury, or a group of people who decide whether a person accused of a crime is innocent of guilty ›Wanted Church officials to be tied with King’s court
  žHenry II ›Circuit judges, or judges who traveled throughout the country ›Set up juries to settle quarrels about land.  After a while, two kings of juries came into being. ›One was the grand jury, or a group of people who present to judges the names of people suspected of crimes ›The other was the trial jury, or a group of people who decide whether a person accused of a crime is innocent of guilty ›Wanted Church officials to be tied with King’s court

  žParliament ›Eight years later, the new king, Edward I

–meeting of representatives to help him make laws –This gathering known as Parliament –Nobles and clergy met as the House of Lords, while knights and townspeople met as the House of Commons.


Section 3
The Hundred Years’ War

  žThe kings of France who were growing more powerful, wanted to drive the English out. žIn 1337, the English king, Edward III, declared himself king of France. ›This make the French even more angry žThe Hundred Years’ War began when the English defeated the French fleet and won control of the sea. ›The English then invaded France ›They defeated the French at the Battle of Crecy in 1346 and again at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415

  žJeanne d’ Arc of Joan of Arc, a 17 year old French peasant ›She helped defend France žBoth France and England were changed by the war ›French feudal territories were under king’s rule, and France was unified ›England’s monarchy was weakened ›Most became farmers who rented land from the nobles

Section 4 Germany

  žIn 936 Otto became king ›Set up a Christian Roman Empire in western Europe ›Began expanding Germany ›Took over Northern Italian trading cities ›In 962 he led an army to Rome to free the Pope žIn 1152 Frederick I became Emperor ›He had a red beard and was called Barbarossa or “red beard”
  žIn 1220 Frederick II became emperor ›Frederick II was Frederick II’s grandson ›Known as the best-educated monarch of his time The Hapsburgs When the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire died, the German princes met in a diet Diet: assembly At the Diet they elected a new Emperor Maximilian I who became emperor in 1493 §Worked to extend empire’s power

Section 5 Spain
  žCauses of United Catholic Monarchy ›While western European monarchies were increasing their power, Spain was under the control of the Moors ›Most Spaniards, however, were Christians and opposed Muslim rule ›The most important way in which they unified Spain, was through religion ›Ferdinand and Isabella were known as the “Catholic Monarchs” ›They believed that to be truly united all Spaniards should be Catholic
  žEffects of United Catholic Monarchy ›They turned their attention to the Jews ›The Jews had lived freely under the Moors ›As Christians took over more of Spain, they killed thousands of Jews this made many Jews convert to Christians ›Set up the Spanish Inquisition ›Thousands of people charged with heresy. ›Still most Jews refused to change their faith so they were told to leave ›Spain was weak because artisans, merchants, and doctors left