Katie's 8th Grade History
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All the land the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Persians were located at.




Military Empires

The Assyrians

- about 1,000 years after Hammurabi ruled people called Assyrians rose to power in Mesopotamia

     - Their country laid in the upper part of the Tigris River valley

     - spoke the same language and used the same writing system as the Babylonians

     - rolling hills and rain-watered valleys did not provide protection against invaders

     - By 800 B.C. the armies became so strong they could take over cities, trading routes, and fortresses throughout Mesopotamia

* The Assyrian Army

     - The army was very industrialized with shields, helmets, spears, daggers, charioteers, cavalry, and archers

     - Most weapons made of iron

     *- Smelting: Heating iron or metals to remove impurities

     - Borrowed the skill from the Hittites

     - They didn’t always have to fight to get slaves they spread stories of their cruelty and people would just surrender

*Kings and Government

     - Big kings that ruled empires from Persian Gulf in the east to the Nile valley in the west

     - A great king named Ashurbanipal started one of the world’s first libraries

     *- Provinces: Political districts

     - The officials collected taxes and made certain the king’s laws were obeyed

     - Roads connected all the land

     - Government soldiers were posted at stations along the roads to protect traders from bandits

     - In time the empire became too large to govern

     - After Ashurbanipal died various conquered people worked to end Assyrian rule

     - One group was the Chaldeans in 612 B.C. they captured Nineveh the Assyrian capital

     - The Assyrian Empire crumbled shortly after

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Assyrian picture above

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Chaldean picture above.

The Chaldeans

-   Also conquered many people

-   Under their king Nebuchadnezzar they extended their empire’s boundaries as far west and Syria and Palestine

-   They called themselves Babylonians this was because most Chaldeans were descendants of the people who made up Hammurabi’s empire about 1,200 years earlier

-   Babylon was the world’s richest city

-   In the center of the city stood palaces, temples, and a  huge ziggurat

-   They believed that if they had a ceremony with a statue of the god Marduk it would make their crops grow, they also believed it would keep peace in the empire

-   Outside the center of Babylon stood houses and market places

-   There artisans made pottery, cloth, and baskets

-   They were sold to passing caravans

-   Caravan:

-   Traders came to Babylon from as far away as India and Egypt

-   Trade help make Babylon rich

-   Babylon was also a center of science

-   Astronomers:

-   They made maps that showed the positions of the planets and the phases of the moon

-   Made one of the first sundials

-   They were also the first to have a seven-day week

-   Babylon was the center of a great civilization for many years

-   The Chaldeans began to lose their power

-   They found it hard to control the people they had conquered

-   Then in 539 B.C. Persians from the mountains to the northeast captures Babylon

-   Mesopotamia became just another part of the Persian Empire



The Persians

-Originally the Persians were part of the people known as Aryans

-The Aryans were cattle herders from the grasslands of central Asia

     -About 2,000 B.C. however the Persians began to separate, they finally settled in high plain between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea

     -The divided most of the country into large farms owned by nobles

     -There was little water on the hot plain

     -They dug underground tunnels from the springs to the field

     -With water the farmers were able to grow wheat and barley and the pasture sheep

*Army and Empire

     -About 600 B.C. the Persians were conquered by the Medes

     -The Medes were soon overthrown by the Persians under King Cyrus

     -Cyrus then organized an army to conquer new territory

     -Officers were Persians while its soldiers were either Persians or conquered people

     -The best fighters were the Immortals

     -With time the Persians had an empire that stretched from Egypt to India

     -They aloud their subjects to keep their own language, religion, and laws

     -They wanted their subjects to pay taxes and to produce goods for trade

     -One of the strongest Persian kings was Darius

*Government Officials:

     -Kings and officers spoke Aramaic, this was the language used by the Middle Eastern merchants

     -The king chose a governor, secretary, and a general to collect taxes of gold, silver, sheep, horses, wheat, and spices and sent them to the royal treasury in Persepolis

*Family Life:

     -The Persians lived in houses with pointed roofs and porches

          -Poor families had one room houses

     -Noble families had houses with one set of rooms for men and another for women and children

     -Poor children worked with their parents

     -Nobles were cared for by their mothers until they were five years old

     -Boys were trained to ride horses and draw a bow

     -Girls were trained to run households and raise children

*Religion:

     -At first the Persians worshiped many gods

     -Then about 570 B.C. a religious leader named Zoroaster told the Persians about two gods

          -One named Ahura Mazda was wise and truthful

          -The other named Ahruman made all evil things in the world

 

*Trade:

     -The Persians thought they should be warriors, farmers, or shepherds

          -They believed trade forced people to lie, cheat, and be greedy

     -Persians expanded the roads that the Assyrians had started

     -Silk was first brought along the roads

     -The first known coin had been made in Lydia

     -After conquering Lydia the Persian king decided to use gold coins in his empire

     -They sold chickens, dried fish, furniture, clothing, pots, and pans