Katie's 8th Grade History
Picture
The picture above shows a frescoe of bull leaping which was the main sport the Minoans had.

The Minoans

The Minoans civilization came around about 2800 B.C.  The civilization devolped on the Mediterranean island of Crete.  The main resources the Minoans used was olives and wood.  The main god the Minoans worshiped was Mother Earth.  They also had horns with holes and held inside the horns was a bronze double ax.  Unlike other city-states the Minoans had a palace in the center rather than a temple.  Minoan people were very skilled workers they used their carpentry skills and metal working skills to build ships.  Livestock was important they raised cattle, long-horned sheep, and goats.  Minoans were into sports the main sport they were into was bull leaping, they also liked boxing.  When they started using their ships for trade they invinted the prow which was used for sinking other ships.
Picture

The picture above shows the Trojan horse which was used in the was between Troy and the Mycenaeans.

The Mycenaeans

The Mycenaeans originated from the grasslands of Southern Russia.  The Mycenaeans main resource for food was hunting but besides that they also hearded cattle.  Mycenaeans copied a lot of things from the Minoans like olives, ship building, metal working, fashion, and writting.  The Mycenaeans fought with Troy because they captures Hellena and Troy controlled the trade route along the Black Sea.  When the Mycenaeans fought Troy they hid inside a big wooden horse and then attacked.  The Trojan war lasted 10 years.
Picture

The picture above is a picture of the Greece and its surroundings.

The Polis

The Polis of city-state was the geographic and political center of Greek life.  They center of the city-state was the fortified hill called an acropolis.  Next to that was the agora which was also known as market places.  Outside of the agora was the artisans, traders, and member of the upper class houses.  The farthest out was the farm land and where the tenants lived.  Workers, women, childern, and enslaved people were born outside Greece and were not considered citizens.  Only citizens could vote, own property, and speak for themselves in court. 
Picture

The picture shown above is a picture of the Spartans getting ready for war with there weapons and sheilds in hand.

Sparta

*aristocrats: nobels, took over the government
*two kings
*only nobles could be citizens
*in south-central, Peloponnesus
                   *Aristocrats, Helots, and Perioeci
*weren't interested in farming
*helots: land workers enslaved people
*perioeci: merchants/artisians
*Helots, perioeci worked, and artistocrats trained for amry and war
                *Spartan way of Life
*healthy babies lived, nonhealthy were left on hillside to die
*7 year old boys were sent to military camp, there they learned how to read, write, and use weapons
*men were expected to marry at 20 years of age
*retire when they are 60 years old
*Spartan women had more freedom than other women of other Greek city-states
*most time at home doing household duties
*never spoke to men or entertained their husbands' friends
*sports: wrestling and racing
*poor farming society that depended on labor of slves
*new ideas would weaken, so they kept their tradition
*300 B.C. lost military dominance
*only soldiers could be citizens and male citizens could only be soldiers
*first democracy
*one value above others skill in warfare
*there culture only lasted a few centuries
*Males left military camp and finally joined army when they were 20 and went until they were 30
Picture

The picture above is an acropolis.

Athens

*Greek city-state
*along Aegean Sea
*first ruled by kings
*noble, merchants, and manufacturers took over the government
*oligarchy: small group that rules
*oligarchy did not work- reform
*Draco- to harsh punishments
*Solon- constitution
*constitution: written laws
*Solon increased trade
*Peisistratus- lower class leader
*encouraged sculpture and other arts
                     *A Democratic Constitution
*over thrown by Spartans
*Then Spartans overthrown by Cleisthenes
*democratic constitution
*democratic: favoring the equality of all people
*assembly- council of 500 
    *did daily business
    *drawn each year
    *men over 20
    *did not like elections unfair advantage
    *boy 7 years started education
    *18 males became citizens
              *The Persian War
*Persian Empire expands and takes over Ionia
*Greeks helped Ionia, made Persians mad
*Persian attacked at marathon, Greeks surprised and defeated
*Nike Goddess victory
*26 mile Marathon
*Athens found rich silver, built up their navy
*triremes: warships that had 3 levels of rowers
*Xerxes: conquered Northern Greece
*Thermopylae battle
*Sparans 300
*traitor-marched to Athens, PHALYX
*Battle of Plataea  
            *Delian League Empire
*defensive league: pretective group
*Sparta did not join
*turns into Athenian Empire
*Athens
*Pericles lead for 30 years
*built new temples, long wall
*art, philosophy, literature
           *Decline of Athens
*jelousy of other city-states
*tension with Sparta
*Peloponnesian War
*Sparta won created oligarchy
*Later Athenians revolted-stand up-come back, got democracy back
*Never as powerful as before
*mercenaries: hired soldiers

Decline of the city-states

The Peloponnesian War helped destroy the sence of community in most Greek city-states because the was lasted a long time and had cost a great deal of money.  People became more interested in making money.  Soon bitternedd developed between the upper and lower classes within each polis.
Some of the reasons for the decline of the Greek city-states were that after the was Sparta ruled Greece.  Spartans were harsh, so a group of city-states led by Thebes but they were no better.
 
Picture

The picture above is known as the Olympic rings.

Cultural Contributions

Religious Practices

*each city-state had their own religion

*oracles: religious person spoke to the gods

*prophecy: statement of the gods

Gods and Goddesses of Mount Olympus

-Zeus: Big Guy

-Aphrodite: Love and beauty

-Apollo: God of Sun

-Ares: God of war

-Artemis: Moon/twin sister of Apollo

-Athena: wisdom

-Demeter: Crops

-Dionysus: fertility

-Hephaestus: god of fire and artisans

-Hera: marriage

-Hermes: messengers

-Poseidon: sea

-Hades: underworld

*Individual-self-respect

-built temples for Gods

-Festivals to honor Gods

The Olympic Games

-Every 4 years

-celebrate Zeus

-war, everything stops for games

-Athletes from surrounding areas including Africa, Italy, and Asia Minor

-Men competed, women not allowed to watch

*Events

     -Chariot races

     -Boxing

     -Pancratium: boxing and wrestling

     -Pentathlon: 5 event sport (run, jumping, discuss, wrestling, javelin)

-winners were heroes

-recorded Olympics

The Theater

-groups telling and acting out stories

-tragedies -story about suffering

-lessons taught

-comedies –happy or funny stories

-made fun of people

-make fun of situations

-festivals

-morning – tragedies

-afternoon – comedy

-men act – women only watch

-costumes

-masks – emotions

-also using clothes to tell the story

-open air theaters

-public responsibilities to support the theater

Picture

This picture is of a sphinx located in Egypt.

Science
-intellect ability to learn and reson
-philosophia
*Socrated
-held on trial
-he told the truth
-teaching people how to thing
-Socratic method- form of questioning
-made Athens look weak or wrong
-would not change his ways
-guilty sentenced to death
-drink posionous hemlock juice
-bronze statue in his honor
*Plato
-Plato wrote about Socrates
-went to Egypt and Italy then back to Athens to make an academy
-only good and wise should rule
-first book ever written on political science
-Dialogue
-believed in truth
*Aristotle
-Plato's brightes pupils
-wrote more than 200 books
-came up with classifying
-Thales first 2 steps of scientific method-hypothesis
-Aristotles said you must test hypothesis
-2 things 3 to tie them together
-syllogism: form of reasoning
*Discoveries and Inventions
-found a lot of information without technology
-natural events - not god events
-predicted an eclipse- Thales
-many contributions to science
-Hippocrates was father of Medicine
-Hippocratic Oath still used today - what's best for patients
Philip of Macedonia
*Greece had a new ruler in 338 B.C.
*Most Macedonia was farmers
*Hostage: person held by an enemy until certain promises are carried out
*Goal to spread Greek culture
*volenteer army year round
*Phalanx: infantry information
*14 Foot spears
*Sling shots
*bows and arrows
*alliances: partnership
Picture

This picture is of Alexander the Great with his armor.  I chose this picture because he conquered a lot of city-states.

Alexander the Great

*Philip’s Son

*Became leader at age 20

*took over after Philip died

*commander in the army since he was 16

*Alexander was very smart Aristotle

*Taught him literature, political science, geography, and biology

~Alexander’s empire

*expanded the empire

*had a dream of a world-wide city

*began bringing Macedonians, Greeks, and Persians together

~Alexandria

*Alexandria is a city-state

*There were 16 city-states named Alexandria

*The most noted one was Alexandria in Egypt

*Alexandria in Egypt was the center of trade and learning

*2 great harbors

*Breakwaters or barriers that break the force of wave

*A lighthouse 400 feet tall

*Palace, and school with a library

*The library there is where Euclid wrote his geometry book

*Archimedes invented several machines there

~End of the Empire

*Alexander died in 323 B.C.

*After Alexander died fights broke out about who was going to rule

*Antigonus became king of Macedonia

*Ptolemy established the dynasty of the Ptolemies in Egypt

*Seleucus formed the Seleucid Empire in Persia

*Trade grew

*Factories: places where goods are made

*Emigrated: left one place to settle in another